Monday, February 24, 2020

Athabasca Pass Canadian National Historic Site Paper Research

Athabasca Pass Canadian National Historic Site - Research Paper Example The British Columbia side of the site is provincial crown land administered by the British Columbia Ministry of Forests† ("Athabasca pass national," ). Athabasca mean â€Å"where the reeds are† in Cree which is the description of the delta where Athabasca river enters into Athabasca lake. Apart from the exotic beauty that Athabasca Pass embraces, the site holds archaeological remains that include artifacts relating to the fur trade from the nineteenth century. The historical geographical importance of Athabasca pass relates to it being a link between the east and the west. The natives of this area have always used this land as a transportation route. Between 1811 and 1850, Athabaska Pass was an important trade route for fur. David Thompson first searched for this route in order to get around the barrier mounted by the Piegan Indians at Howse Pass. Until the mid 1850’s; both the British and American barters used this route for their commercial activities due to its strategic location on the Continental divide. Later on due to certain conflicts between the British and American traders, Hudson’s Bay Company which was a pioneer in the fur trade industry withdrew from the profession. This incident rendered the Athabasca Pass idle. However, later on in 1848, a new mail service emerged which started using this route. This new mail service used to bring mail from New York to Panama by steamboats and then transported these mails to t he Oregon Coast by another boat. This path made the mail service quite efficient. In 1855, the mail service suspended their use of this route, after which the pass was used occasionally. George Simpson, Governor of the Hudsons Bay Company, named the pond at the top of the pass as "Committees Punch Bowl" in 1824. In 1826, Botanist Thomas Drummond studied the diverse flora and fauna of this region for the first time. Later in 1827, a Scottish botanist named â€Å"David Douglas

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Correlation of how many student took the LSATs and how many students Essay

Correlation of how many student took the LSATs and how many students actually got accepted into law school - Essay Example In essence, Law Schools will try to place higher LSAT requirements for students so that they are protrayed as having higher standards and so that they compete effectively. LSAC implemented the requirement to ensure uniformity in the criteria that member schools used to admit students to their law programs. However, the validity of LSAT has come under controversy considering that there is a possibility that students who might be proficient could be left out by LSAT requirement. A study conducted by Domino & Domino established that 54% of those students who passed the LSAT actually proved that the test was valid. The study was conducted on first year students using their average scores in various Law Schools and involved 726 students (12). However, Domino & Domino also explain that the values were very different across schools. Controversies have also recently arisen over cheating where some students hire other people to take the tests for them. The general realization from these findings is that there are other factors that influence the LSAT other than the standardization requirement by the schools. For instance, Law Schools might make the tests extremely difficult so that they appear as having high quality students and therefore influence the admission of their graduates to the mainstream practising of the Law. The essence of tests is not to lock out candidates but to ensure that only those candidates with the correct qualifications are admitted. The following paper seeks to establish the nature of correlation between the number of students who take LSAT and the ones who actually get admitted in Law schools so as to determine whether most students who take the exams fail or pass. According to Burdette, â€Å"LSAT is usually administered by the Law School Admissions Council a non-profit organization†¦Ã¢â‚¬ (4) and the general realization is that Law Schools realized that they needed

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Trojan Nuclear Power Plant Essay Example for Free

Trojan Nuclear Power Plant Essay Trojan Plant was a pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant located in Rainier, Oregon, United States. Its construction started in 1st February 1970 and its commenced commercial operation on May1976, with a 35-year license which was to lapse in 2011. Unfortunately, it was closed about 20 years before the year of its designed lifetime, 16 years precisely of its operation. During its existence, Trojan produced over 12% of the electrical supply of Oregon. Historically, more than 80% of Oregons electricity came from hydropower from dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers, while the rest is from fossil fuels. Trojan generated 1130 megawatt electrical (MWe) unit, which was the largest PWR unit that was ever built. A total of $450 million was coughed out in order to build the plant. It reactor supplier was Combustion Engineering and Reactor type Pressurized water reactor (PRW), with a power Capacity of 1,130 MW. It was constructed by Babcock and Wilcox. Its operator was Portland General Electric. Trojan was closed down for a major modification in the year 1978 to improve its resistance to earthquake which unraveled major errors in its construction and a close proximity of an unknown faultline. The operators sued the builders but the case was settled out of court. It took its steam generators only 4years to start developing problems, although they were designed to last the life of the plant, the steam tubes started cracking. Debates on the closure of Trojan was initiated by Lloyd Marbet in 1980, it persisted for a while until its operators finally proceeded with the demolition of Trojan. Its demolition started in 1993 and was completed in 2006. Reference   Koberstein, Paul (2005-03-09). Trojan: PGEs Nuclear Gamble, Willamette Week, p.  A1. Retrieved on 2007-06-15.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Relationships Between Men and Women in The Winters Tale by William Sha

Relationships Between Men and Women in The Winter's Tale by William Shakespeare The Winter's Tale was written in 1611, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. The play is one of Shakespeare's romance titles, though it could be more justly referred to as a 'tragi-comedy' due to the instances of accusation, death, repentance and reunion. To successfully study how Shakespeare presents relationships between men and women in The Winter's Tale there are four main relationships to examine - Hermione and Leontes, Paulina and Antigonus, Perdita and Florizel, and Leontes and Paulina. Shakespeare's view of women, and generally the Elizabethan view, suggested that women had less capability for evil - can only assist in a man's corruption or downfall, evidence for this can be found by examining particular types of literature from this period, such as T.E. (?)'s didactic 'The Law's Resolution of Women's Rights'. Likewise in The Winter's Tale, only to a lesser extent, women can be seen as temptresses. Hermione was the supposed adulteress in The Winter's Tale. Many would argue that Shakespeare depicted the condition of women within a patriarchal system and created female characters, which in their richness transcend the limitations of his time. Shapiro, for example, goes so far as to claim that Shakespeare was 'the noblest feminist of them all.' Though Shakespeare pays more attention to the roles that men play in society and many of the female characters are constricted in their experiences. They do not have the same ability to be as fully human as the men. They do not learn by their experiences, except Paulina who is eventually chastised and pa... ...sion. It could be argued that Shakespeare only goes so far with the gender roles - the women are eventually silenced or pacified - because the suspension of disbelief can only be maintained so far - the traditional view of women was confined within rigid boundaries. In The Winter's Tale all the women are badly treated - incidentally, at the hands of men. Our perspective of the actions of the men we believe to be harsh, though to Shakespeare's contemporaries they were likely to be justified - in fact chastisement would probably be justified to a more brutal extent. There is however little authentic evidence in the plays, that Shakespeare strove either to uphold or to subvert, however covertly, the established order. Works Cited: Shakespeare, William. The Winter's Tale. Ed. J. H. P. Pafford (London: Methuen, 1963).

Monday, January 13, 2020

Knowledge Brokering and the Work of Information Technology Professionals Essay

Abstract   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This section talks about the purpose of the exploratory study; the result that brokering practices for information distribution are affected by the structural conditions in the organization. Introduction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This section talks about how an IT professional views himself and what some IT professionals feel about their role in the information distribution chain in the company. It talks about how an IT professional must expand his or her role to take on the mantle of spreading information to all quarters and feel that their responsibility is not only to ensure that information flows but ensure that information is available to everyone in a way that they are made aware of instead of them seeking information when they need it. It knows vs. seeking. Related Research   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This section talks about the absence of any previous theories on knowledge brokering and how the authors used studies from the area of organizational science to base their study and start their research. It also points to the limitation of the article that it doesn’t talk about any best practices that can be used in effective knowledge transfer amongst the different units of an organization Boundary Spanning   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This section talks about how there are different boundaries in an organization, internal as well as external and how boundary spanners are the ones who have the responsibility of transferring knowledge from one unit to another unit of the organization. Situated Learning   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This section talks about the theory that learning and knowledge transfer depend on the community that the people interact in. it brings along aspects like culture, whether in the organization of in the city or country. It talks about how different people have different views on things and that their environment can and will strengthen their views – as most of us like to be with like minded people. Method   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This section talks about the whole methodology of how the authors have gone about researching the article and coming up with their theory and reasoning. Research Site   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This section gives a reasonably detailed background of the company that is chosen for research. The company is a fortune 100 company with 55,000 employees and has 600 plants and centers in North America. Data Collection   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This section talks about the data collection methodology, which was a semi-structured interview of one hour durations. They started from the CIO and went down the chain of command. The interviews were held with IT professionals as was the scope and basis of the study. Analysis   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This section talks about how the data that was gathered during interviews was later reviewed and how the authors went about adding notes and additional comments to the information before they came to the results. The analysis was mainly qualitative. Only 23 participants make up the whole study. Results   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The result was a set of themes that came out from the analysis of the interviews that were conducted. The authors went into brief details of each theme and they are presented below. Position of IT professionals   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This talks about how IT professional position themselves in the organization to be effective in the work they do. The fact that most positions required domain expertise helped the IT professionals as they were able to build credibility with the department that they worked in. Shared Systems as Boundary Objects   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This section explains how the fact that IT is a part of every business transaction affects all changes that happen in an organization. It also talks about how the IT professionals’ participation in all important meetings becomes a chance for knowledge brokering and how IT professionals can take advantage of such opportunities. Brokering Practices   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This section gives an introduction to the types of themes for knowledge brokering that emerged; they are discussed in detail later. Crossing Boundaries   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This is the first theme and it refers to IT professionals going to different units and spreading information or sharing knowledge. It talks about how the initiative taken by different IT professionals can affect the knowledge brokering within the company. Surfacing and Challenging Assumptions   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This section talks about how IT professionals would regularly ask â€Å"Why† to challenge a certain assumption and find out the underlying reason or change the systems using this approach. Translation and Interpretation   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This section talks about the theme of being a translator and interpreter for different departments and being the person who would find solutions amongst all the jargons that they use. Relinquishing Ownership   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This section talks about how for every change the IT professionals always needed the approval of the units that they worked in. it also mentions how the IT professionals presented themselves to be impartial although they always wanted a certain way to implement things. Consequences of Knowledge Brokering   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This section talks about how the IT professionals not only saw themselves as IT people but also as people who moved the information from one part of the company to another part. Discussion   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This section wraps up the topic and dwells on the fact that shared systems was one of the most important tools that IT professionals used in sharing knowledge and how the job of an IT professional was changing in the structures that exist in different organizations. Evaluation   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In this section the authors evaluate their work and inform the reader how their study covers many differing aspects and what it offers. Conclusion   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This section talks about how the role of the IT professional in information sharing is diminishing as they get sidelined to only building and maintaining information systems. It also mentions that the IT professionals now have to revaluate their jobs and see how they can add more value to the organization. References   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This section lists all the references that are used in the article. About the authors   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This section talks about the authors, their achievements and specialties. Appendix   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This section lists the questions that were asked during the interviews that were conducted. Assumptions   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The authors assume that what happens in one company happens in all company. They mention themselves that the role of an IT professional can change depending on the structure in the organization, its contradictory. Limitations   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The study only looks at one company and interviewed 23 people in it. The whole paper is based on information gathered there. It does not use any statistical tools and the theory is based on qualitative data only. The study does not share any best practices (lack of comparative sample) and does not give concrete suggestions on what the future holds for the IT professional.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The Dalai Lama And The World s Oldest Religion - 1975 Words

The Dalai Lama once said, â€Å"Major religious traditions carry basically the same message, that is love, compassion and forgiveness†¦ the important thing is they should be part of our daily lives† (Huffington Post). This quote by the Dalai Lama speaks to the issues of pluralism and interfaith understanding. Pluralism is used to describe the diversity of different cultures and how they actively interact with one another. It engages the differences between cultures to obtain a deeper, more profound understanding of each other’s beliefs. To engage in pluralism means to equally support, accept and participate in the decisions of various religious groups as well as placing a positive value on faith and practice. In pluralism, all religious practices are considered beneficial as long as they follow the laws of the state and do not harm individuals within the community. Hinduism is commonly thought of as the world’s oldest religion. There are approximately one billion Hindus worldwide. The vast majority live in India, although there are large populations of Hindus in South Asia, United States, Australia, Western Europe, and Canada. Hindus recognize a supreme being that can exist in copious different forms and identities and several local deities as well. Some of the important deities include Vishnu, Shiva and Shiva’s consort. Vishnu is a God that has been depicted to have arrived on Earth in both the forms of a human and an animal. It has been said that his purpose was toShow MoreRelatedMan Who Gave Up Money1200 Words   |  5 Pages Man Who Gave Up Money Go to a mall in America on any given weekend, and you will see herds of consumers buying clothing and other material goods that they believe defines them as individuals. Now fly halfway around the world and visit a place like Tibet or a Japanese Shinto Buddhist temple, and we see individuals define themselves not by material possessions, but by their spirituality. Can a nation like the United States whose populace is so entrenched in possession be able to change theirRead MoreHinduism And Buddhism : What Is Hinduism?1986 Words   |  8 PagesBuddhism What is Hinduism? ‘The religion life of India is like the river Ganges. It has flowed along for thousands of years, swirling from its own power, but also from the power of new streams that have added to its force’. (pg 78 Fifth edition Experiencing the world’s religions, traditions, challenges, and change) Hinduism, is the main religion of India and is the worship of numerous gods with a faith in a solitary celestial reality. Hinduism has numerous divisions of religion, but they have a relatedRead MoreIs India A Country Of Ethnic Religious And Linguistic Pluralism Par Excellence?1364 Words   |  6 Pagesconcept of religion, and how did It contribute to the creation of other faiths that coexist harmoniously until today. It is essential to define the term â€Å"religion† first to be able to realize whether the meaning has shifted when we refer to south Asian beliefs. Religion derives from the Latin word â€Å"Religio† which means obligation, bond or reverence. T.N Madan noted in his essay that in Lucretius, it also mean â€Å"fear of gods†. Therefore the question becomes, are all what we refer to as â€Å"religions† in IndiaRead MoreJudaism And The Jewish Prayer3766 Words   |  16 Pagesgetting into a group of ten called a minyan. Like other religions, the length and style of the prayer depends on the synagogue. Synagogues will usually hire a professional singer, called hazzan, to lead in the congregation of the prayers. Often times Jews will swing back and forth while praying, but it is not mandatory. Jewish prayers are considered invalid if proper concentration and awareness is not displayed. †¢ Judaism is the oldest religion that still exists to this day. Jews have faced manyRead MoreSimilarities Between Hinduism And Hinduism1199 Words   |  5 PagesThe world has many different religions. Asia has had many religions spring up. Out of these Buddhism and Hinduism are the most popular beliefs in the general population. Hinduism is the oldest known religion and is very rich with literally hundreds of gods, symbolistic rituals and beliefs. It is believed to have been established around 1500 B.C. but one person never founded Hinduism as it evolved over a long period of time. Buddhism on the other hand has a definite founder, Siddhartha Gautama whoRead MoreBuddhism : A New Way Of Life Without Materialistic Needs Essay1547 Words   |  7 Pagesthere s a galaxy, and on this galaxy there s the solar system, and in this solar system there is a planet earth, and in this planet earth lives 7 billion people. We are all the same, but divided by key things; oceans and mountains , culture and society, but most important religions and beliefs. Out of the hundreds of practices and beliefs that make part of planet earth one of the most interesting form of religious practice is Buddhism. Buddhism is the practice of finding peace within one s selfRead MoreEastern Religions : A Discussion On Buddhism And Hinduism1608 Words   |  7 PagesEastern Religions: A Discussion on Buddhism and Hinduism Introduction: Hinduism is the â€Å"oldest organized religion† in the world (Chackal Hinduism 1). It began in the Indus Valley in 1500 BCE. There are four main braches of Hinduism: Shaivites, Vaishnavites, Shaktas, and Smarthas. Buddhism was born out of Hinduism in the fourth century BCE. There are two main types of Buddhism: Theravada and Mahayana. Haley: â€Å"Welcome to Eastern Religions: a show where we bring the facts of eastern religions to theRead MoreTourism in India5630 Words   |  23 Pagesbeing made to promote new forms of tourism such as rural, cruise, medical and eco-tourism.[5]  The Ministry of Tourism is the nodal agency for the development and promotion of tourism in India and maintains the  Incredible India  campaign. According to  World Travel and Tourism Council, India will be a tourism hotspot from 2009–2018,[6]having the highest 10-year growth potential.[7]  The  Travel Tourism Competitiveness Report 2007ranked tourism in India 6th in terms of price competitiveness and 39th inRead MoreA Study on Role of Advertisement in Promotion of Tourism in India15524 Words   |  63 PagesINTRODUCTION We live in a marketing and media-driven world. Any organization involved in the leisure and tourism business; arts centers, museums, sports clubs and small hotels to the largest theme parks, airlines and cruise companies, is interested in advertising Many companies think that they should cut expenditure on advertising and redirect it into sales promotions, direct mail, public relations and other forms of marketing communications. Advertising is not an expensive but, rather, is a strategicRead MoreThe Rise of China and Future of the West17670 Words   |  71 PagesUnited States do to maintain its position as China rises? Some observers believe that the American era is coming to an end, as the Western-oriented world order is replaced by one increasingly dominated by the East. The historian Niall Ferguson has written that the bloody twentieth century witnessed the descent of the West and a reorientation of the world toward the East. Realists go on to note that as China gets more powerful and the United States position erodes, two things are likely to happen:

Saturday, December 28, 2019

History of Mail and the Postal System

The history of postal systems, a mail or courier service to pass messages from one person in one place to another person in another place, starts with the invention of writing and may well have been one of the reasons writing was invented. Writing as a Commercial Enterprise The start of writing occurs in Mesopotamia at least 9,500 years ago, and it involved the use of clay tokens, blobs of baked clay which had dots or lines incised in them representing quantities of goods. A courier might bring tokens to a seller for so many bushels of grain, or so many jars of olive oil, and the seller would send the tokens with the goods back to the buyer. Think of it as a Bronze Age bill of lading. By 3500–3100 BCE, the Uruk-period Mesopotamian trade network had ballooned, and they wrapped their clay tokens in thin sheets of clay that were then baked. These Mesopotamian envelopes called bullae were intended to deter fraud, so that the seller could be certain that the correct amount of goods would get to the buyer. Eventually the tokens were done away with and a tablet with markings was used—and then writing really took off. Postal System The first documented use of a postal system—state-sponsored, designated couriers who were trusted to transport messages—occurred in  Egypt about 2400 BCE, when  Pharaohs  used couriers to send out decrees throughout the territory of the state. The earliest surviving piece of mail is also Egyptian, which dates back to 255 BCE, recovered from the Oxyrhynchus papyri cache. The same type of courier service was likely used to administer taxes and keep up to date on far-flung reaches of most empires, such as the Persian empire in the Fertile Crescent (500–220 BCE), the Han dynasty in China (306 BCE–221 CE), the Islamic Empire (622–1923 CE) in Arabia, the Inca empire in Peru (1250–1550 CE), and the Mughal empire in India (1650–1857 CE). In addition, there were undoubtedly state-sponsored messages transported along the Silk Road, between traders in different empires, probably since its inception in the 3rd century BCE. The first envelopes protecting such messages from prying eyes were made of cloth, animal skins or vegetable parts.  Paper envelopes were developed in China, where paper was invented in the 2nd century BCE.  Paper envelopes, known as  chih poh, were used to store gifts of money. The Birth of Modern Mail Systems In 1653, Frenchman Jean-Jacques Renouard de Villayer (1607–1691) established a postal system in Paris. He set up mailboxes and delivered any letters placed in them if they used the postage pre-paid envelopes that he sold. De Valayers business did not last long when a devious person decided to put live mice in the mailboxes scaring away his customers. A schoolmaster from England, Rowland Hill (1795–1879), invented the adhesive postage stamp in 1837, an act for which he was knighted. Through his efforts, the first  postage stamp system  in the world was issued in England in 1840. Hill created the first uniform postage rates that were based on weight, rather than size. Hills stamps made the prepayment of postage both possible and practical.   Today, the  Universal Postal Union, established in 1874, includes 192 member countries and sets the rules for international mail exchanges. History of The United States Postal Office The  United States Postal Service is an independent agency of the U.S. federal government and has been responsible for providing postal services in the U.S. since its start in 1775. It is one of the few government agencies explicitly authorized by the U.S. Constitution. Founding father  Benjamin Franklin  was appointed the first  postmaster general.   First Mail Order Catalog The  first mail order catalog  was distributed in 1872 by Aaron Montgomery Ward (1843–1913) selling goods primarily to rural farmers who had difficulty making it out to the big cities for commerce. Ward started his Chicago-based business with only $2,400. The first catalog consisted of a single 8- by 12-inch sheet of paper with a price list showing the merchandise for sale with ordering instructions. The catalogs then expanded into illustrated books. In 1926 the first Montgomery Ward retail store opened in Plymouth, Indiana. In 2004, the company was re-launched as an e-commerce business. The First Automatic Postal Sorter Canadian electronics scientist Maurice Levy invented an automatic postal sorter in 1957 that could handle 200,000 letters an hour. The Canadian Post Office Department had commissioned Levy to design and supervise the building of a new, electronic, computer-controlled, automatic mail sortation system for Canada. A hand-made model sorter was tested at postal headquarters in Ottawa in 1953. It worked, and a prototype coding and sortation machine, capable of processing all of the mail then generated by the City of Ottawa, was built by Canadian manufacturers in 1956. It could process mail at a rate of 30,000 letters per hour, with a missort factor of less than one letter in 10,000.   Sources and Further Reading Altaweel, Mark, and Andrea Squitieri. Long-Distance Trade and Economy before and During the Age of Empires. Revolutionizing a World. From Small States to Universalism in the Pre-Islamic near East: UCL Press, 2018. 160–78.  Bruning, Jelle. Developments in Egypts Early Islamic Postal System (with an Edition of P.Khalili Ii 5). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 81.1 (2018): 25–40.  Joshi, Chitra. Dak Roads, Dak Runners, and the Reordering of Communication Networks. International Review of Social History 57.2 (2012): 169–89.  Priest, George L. The History of the Postal Monopoly in the United States. The Journal of Law and Economics 18.1 (1975): 33–80.  Remijsen, Sofie. The Postal Service and the Hour as a Unit of Time in Antiquity. Historia: Zeitschrift fà ¼r Alte Geschichte 56.2 (2007): 127–40.  Sheldon, Rose Mary. Spies and Mailmen and the Royal Road to Persia. American Intelligence Journal 14.1 (1992): 37–40.  Silverstein, Adam. Documentary Evidence fo the Early History of the Bar d. Ed. Sijpesteijn, Petra A., and Lennart Sundelin.  Papyrology and the History of Early Islamic Egypt. Leiden: Brill, 2004.